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The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behaviour equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.Turing proposed that a human evaluator would judge natural language conversations between a human and a machine designed to generate human-like responses.In 1936, philosopher Alfred Ayer considered the standard philosophical question of other minds: how do we know that other people have the same conscious experiences that we do?In his book, Language, Truth and Logic, Ayer suggested a protocol to distinguish between a conscious man and an unconscious machine: "The only ground I can have for asserting that an object which appears to be conscious is not really a conscious being, but only a dummy or a machine, is that it fails to satisfy one of the empirical tests by which the presence or absence of consciousness is determined." (This suggestion is very similar to the Turing test, but is concerned with consciousness rather than intelligence.In this version, which Turing discussed in a BBC radio broadcast, a jury asks questions of a computer and the role of the computer is to make a significant proportion of the jury believe that it is really a man.Turing's paper considered nine putative objections, which include all the major arguments against artificial intelligence that have been raised in the years since the paper was published (see "Computing Machinery and Intelligence").As he highlights, the traditional approach to such a question is to start with definitions, defining both the terms "machine" and "intelligence".

Denis Diderot formulates in his Pensées philosophiques a Turing-test criterion: "If they find a parrot who could answer to everything, I would claim it to be an intelligent being without hesitation." This does not mean he agrees with this, but that it was already a common argument of materialists at that time.In 1966, Joseph Weizenbaum created a program which appeared to pass the Turing test.The program, known as ELIZA, worked by examining a user's typed comments for keywords.According to dualism, the mind is non-physical (or, at the very least, has non-physical properties) and, therefore, cannot be explained in purely physical terms.According to materialism, the mind can be explained physically, which leaves open the possibility of minds that are produced artificially.

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