Because of increasingly widespread inclusion practices and more thorough identification procedures, students with documented learning disabilities (LD) are becoming a larger percentage of the science classroom.
Principle-to-practice examples LD students may lack basic study strategies in reading, note taking, developing vocabulary, organizing materials, writing, and other study skills.
, Mastropieri and Scruggs (1993) emphasize clearly stated objectives as a hallmark of effective instruction for LD students.
Certainly, understanding the purpose of a lesson or an assessment will enhance the learning of any student, but this understanding is particularly salient for LD students, whose memory capabilities are likely to be compromised as a part of their diagnosis (Hulme and Mackenzie 1992).
The demands for planning, prioritizing, time management, and follow-through can be daunting for any student, but overwhelming for LD students (Shmulsky 2003).
Before LD students can show mastery of content, they must first be explicitly taught effective ways to study and organize for their courses (Gersten, Schiller, and Vaughn 2000; Swanson, Haskyn, and Lee 1999; Vail, Crane, and Huntington 1999).